mardi 8 avril 2014

Revolution against Human Nature

I have read that in Latvia, children in elementary school (or was it kindergarten) had to take part in an ideological masquerade : boys had to put on skirts and girls – pants. It was done to avoid what the authors of such an initiative think is to neutralize the influence of what they call gender stereotypes. In their view, human gender is a social construct...

In the past, revolutions were mostly revolutions against social order, more or less radical protest movements of the underprivileged against the privileged. Nowadays in the West we can see a different kind of revolutionary movements gaining momentum and in some cases even succeeding in overturning previous policies. These movements are directed less against the existing social order than against what is called human nature. This is a common feature of such initiatives as prohibition of prostitution, prohibition of slapping children, prohibition of death penalty, gender feminism with similar ideologies (e.g. queer theory), multi-culturalism, opposition against hard learning (learning by heart), even flirting. Such initiatives are often accepted by legislature, although most people oppose such ideas. A proof of the influence of well-organized activists who often do not belong to the underprivileged, but are strongly motivated by ideologies. Here, we have an analogy with Communists who, representing a minority, were still able to achieve their aims and establish a type of government according to their views. I sometimes wonder whether the activists who try to overturn many traditional attitudes, can overcome the resistance of the silent majority, the « dark masses » and introduce their (sometimes extremist) ideas into practice. In their own way, they too want to educate people, to create a new human being, free of old beliefs and prejudices, as once the Bolsheviks. But I am very sceptical about the results of such a revolution. The human nature they ignored or negated finally triumphed against the attempts to change it, it will probably triumph agains the gender and queer theories whether we like it or not. Still, I feel sorry about all the waste of human resources in such dubious experiments with us and our children.

lundi 7 avril 2014

Increasing Tensions, Increasing Security?

American fighter planes in our skies, NATO troops possibly stationed permanently in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania. Applauses. Politicians, journalists writing that now, under the NATO umbrella we can feel ourselves more secure, have nothing or less to fear from Russia.

I would like to say as eleven years ago said Joschka Fischer: «I am not convinced». More troops mean increased tensions. And in longer perspective, increasing tensions is most often not a good way to increase security.

mardi 1 avril 2014

Putin's Real Ideals

The assertion that Putin is trying to restore the USSR has become a cliché in many articles in Western Press. In fact, he is not. What Putin would like to return to is not the USSR but the Russian Empire. Probably not an empire with an Emperor, but definitely not a communist state. Putin seems to have little sympathy for the Communists or Bolsheviks. Partly because, in his opinion, they dismantled the old tzarist Empire. Perhaps is it not well known that Putin gave a speech on the tomb of general Anton Denikin, one of the main commanders of the anti-bolshevik White forces during the civil war in Russia between 1918 and 1920. Denikin's ashes were reburied in a church in Moscow together with the remains of a Russian philosopher Ivan Ilyin in 2005. In his speech Putin praised Denikin as a real Russian patriot, stressing general's firm belief in the unity and indivisibility of Russia. It is worth mentioning that one of Russia's best know cineasts, Nikita Mikhalkov whose views, in my opinion, quite well reflect the official ideology of the Kremlin, has made several nearly panegyric documentaries on the white generals Denikin, Kolchak and Wrangel. In the late movies by Mikhalkov, there is no sympathy for the Bolsheviks, and Stalin. As to Ilyin, his conservative views on Russia seem to have become a source of inspiration for Putin and his inner circle. Ilyin is a monarchist and Russian nationalist, but definitely not an advocate of irredentism or militarism. Ilyin sees Russia as a different civilization that must not become neither a pupil nor a teacher for other nations. At the same time, Ilyin advocates tolerance for other, non-Russian peoples living in the future Empire as well as for other nations. Of course, Ilyin was an outspoken opponent of Bolshevism. He has written a pathetic essay with the title «Soviet Union is not Russia». Perhaps this title too points to the real sympathies of President Putin and his entourage.

We will soon see whether Russia will resemble more to the Soviet Union or to the Russian Empire. I would definitely hope the latter will come true. But some ugly parallels between Mussolini's Italy and Putin's Russia, especially in the style of their propaganda, trouble me. It's not impossible that instead of becoming a real successor of the Russian Empire, Russia will become it's parody, reviving it's worst features as pogromist (nowadays it's less antisemitic than homophobic) mentality and aggressive religiosity with strong patriotic overtones.

To understand what Ilyin really thought and wrote about these topics I recommend to those who still read Russian his abovementioned article: 

Just one quote from it in original:

Ведь нужно быть законченным слепцом, чтобы воображать, будто советская оккупация или инфильтрация сделала Русское национальное государство чтимым или «популярным» в Финляндии, Эстонии, Латвии, Литве, Польше, Галиции, Австрии, Германии, Чехии, Венгрии, Румынии, Болгарии, Югославии, Албании и Греции; будто солдатские изнасилования женщин, чекистские аресты, увозы и казни, насаждение политического доносительства, избиения и расстрелы лидеров крестьянской и либеральной оппозиции в этих странах, пытки в тюрьмах, концлагеря, фальшивые голосования, а также преднамеренная повсеместная инфляция, все эти имущественные переделы, конфискации и социализации приветствуются этими несчастными народами, как «заря свободы» или как «истинная демократия», как «желанные дары» «великой России»... На самом же деле в этих странах сеется дьявольское семя и растет ненависть к национальной России.
Мировое общественное мнение доселе не научилось отличать советское государство от национальной России и интернационально-коммунистическое правительство от замучиваемого им русского народа. Все творимое Советами вписывается в воображаемый кондуит России; все «художества» и «качества» Советской власти приписываются ей; и против нее накапливается все негодование других народов. Ея неповинное имя клянут на стогнах всего мира; ее воспринимают ныне, как вселенскую язву; от нее ждут бесчисленных бед и страданий, третьей мировой войны и революционных преобразований.
Мы, русские патриоты, скорбим об этом вот уже тридцать лет, разоблачая повсюду эту ошибку и восстанавливая правду: советское государство не есть национальная Россия. А советские патриоты знают эту правду не хуже нас, видят истинное положение вещей и становятся на сторону Советов, помогая им компрометировать, насиловать и губить национальную Россию.

samedi 29 mars 2014

Lennart ja operett

Ta oleks saanud täna 85. Mul on temast hulga mälestusi, häid ja mitte kõige paremaid. Aga huvitavaid ikka. Üks tema hinnang oma rollile: Et ta on elus operette küll vaadanud, aga igat vaid üks kord. Aga kui teataks, kui palju hõbenaelu on tal tulnud lipuvarrastesse lüüa...

Kui toonane Poola president Lech Walesa Tallinnas oli ja mina Riigikogus, sattusin minema Toomkiriku vastas mööda kõnniteed, kui äkki kuulsin valjut vilet: see oli Lennart, kes teiselt poolt tänavat mulle vilistas. Karjapoisi kombel, kaks sõrme suus. Tahtis midagi öelda.

Maarjamaa rist rikkus meie suhted, aga respekt jäi. Ja mõneski asjas olime ühte meelt. Ta lootis tõsiselt, et ameeriklased ei lähe Iraaki. Ja ideed millestki Euraasia liidu taolisest ühendusest teda huvitasid, võibolla isegi talle meeldisid. Ning ta pidas lugu Poola sõjaväelise riigipöörde juhist kindral Jaruzelskist.

vendredi 14 mars 2014

Time to Leave

Having visited the islands of Madeira and Porto Santo I feel I'd like to write a short story where God tells to a man that after all we humans have done to our planet it's time for us to leave. But before that, we must restore what we have destroyed. Including the extinct species as moas, dodos and the passenger pigeon. Then, we should go, leaving the Earth alone.

jeudi 27 février 2014

The Visitor/ a short story

The Visitor

The Director of the N. zoological museum didn't especially like his job, but it gave him plenty of free time and a study where he could sit in peace, to work on his doctoral thesis. There were serious problems with the museum. Lack of money and lack of interest on the part of the University bosses made it nearly impossible to reverse the slow degradation of exhibits and furniture. There were yellowish spots on the ceiling that had been there when he visited the museum for the first time as a young student. On the floor above a water pipe had leaked or a tap was not working properly. It had been repaired, but nobody had whitewashed the damaged ceiling. There were many other things in need of repair, refurbishment or simply cleaning up. He had himself put new locks on some glass cabinets containing rare specimens of tropical butterflies and exotic worms in alcohol. These locks had been broken by Soviet soldiers during the war: they had looked for spirits and drank every drop, even from the jar where a large tapeworm found in the intestines of an elk was preserved. The tapeworm had survived - if we can use the word in speaking of a parasite dead for a hundred years - this act of vandalism; whether the soldiers survived, nobody knew.

Worst of course were the exhibits themselves, and although his experiences had made of him a nearly accomplished fatalist, he was still disturbed and even angry when he found new traces of moths in the fur of the grizzly bear or even worse: in the piece of mammoth skin found in Siberia in the 1880's and brought to his town by a renowned explorer, geographer and zoologist whose name had been given to some newly discovered species of rodents in China and South Asia. The Director had even bought some insecticide with his own money, frustrated by the lack of interest from his superiors in the fate of the bear, the mammoth skin or the stuffed tropical birds which had preserved the colours of their feathers despite the moths and the dust. Yes, the dust was even worse than the moths, it gathered in the hair of little marsupials and in the feathers of hummingbirds, and was nearly impossible to wipe away without damaging these rare specimens, collected and brought here about one hundred and fifty years ago by an eccentric noblemen who spent most of his time traveling in Australia, New Zealand and South America. When he died, little was left of his former wealth, his heirs had to sell his manor houses and his collections that were bought by the university. Possibly the dust was nowadays more aggressive, containing something acid or oily. It seemed to eat into hair and feathers, making them look dull and greyish.

But despite all of that he liked the museum: after the collapse of what had been the USSR, when people became free to visit Western countries, he had rarely seen anything similar to it. Some of the old museums in Europe had been destroyed during the war, some had been modernized, made more attractive and entertaining for the general public. He thought it was perhaps his egoism that made him oppose such modernization: in the old-fashioned nineteenth-century museum it was easier for him to do his work undisturbed by unwelcome visitors and the constant need to invent new ways to attract more of them. He disliked advertizing, all the noisiness, humbug and banality that had invaded the country after the coming of freedom. Maybe he was a traditionalist by character, maybe the years spent in the museum had made him a traditionalist; anyhow he found his study and the museum a kind of a lonely island amidst the muddy currents of innovation and entrepreneurship that were rapidly changing everything around him.

Here he had the feeling that time had stopped or was moving at a quiet pace as it probably had when the museum was founded and everything still seemed stable and solid. One of his friends, a mathematician, once said he liked pre-first-world-war furniture: it was not designed for people who moved, but for people who lived all their lies in the same flat, in the same house. Like these heavy oak desks, massive glass cabinets and built-in bookcases full of books on zoology and geography. There were some rare volumes he kept in a well-locked cabinet: books with autographs by von Baer, Cuvier, Darwin, Haeckel and Alexander von Humboldt. They all had been in contact, corresponded with professors here: some of whom were quite famous during their lifetime. It was something to show to foreign visitors, some of whom confessed they had a liking for the genuine nineteenth-century atmosphere in the museum, and - as some of them were frank enough to admit - in the university in general. Something his bosses wouldn't have been happy to hear: they were engaged in a P.R. campaign trying to prove that after the gloomy years of Communist dictatorship the university was once again a wholly modern scientific institution doing important research in IT, semiconductors and computing.

As for himself, he was happy enough to be able to study the dynamics of some bird populations that were quite healthy and numerous in his country, in sharp contrast to their decay in more advanced and rich European countries. Not all his visitors shared nostalgic feelings for the nineteenth-century atmosphere in the university, but all of them admired the abundace of wildlife they could observe on shorter or longer field trips he organized for them. They were happy to offer him help and possibility of cooperation in studying wildlife that didn't any longer exist in the West. Thus he could take the best of both worlds, making use of laboratory facilities in the West and getting necessary software from his European colleagues while living and making field studies in his own country, which was still less populated, polluted and developed than the rich ones. Sometimes he found he felt a kind of perverse gratitude to the Soviet system which had transformed huge areas of formerly agricultural landscape in his country into nature parks jealously guarded from both local people and foreigners by the all-powerful military.

After all, the Soviet system had also preserved this nineteenth-century atmosphere in the museum and university. His friend the mathematician thought the musem was less a museum of zoology than a museum of good and bad old times. The mathematician wished he were a dictator: he would preserve the university, the town and maybe the whole country as a museum exhibit, a historical reservation: wasn't every epoch in itself worth being preserved for future generations? Yes, the Director nearly agreed with him: the museum was really something more than a museum of zoology. But he himself? Wasn't he too a museum exhibit, something belonging to his time, something visitors could look at and study as a rare specimen of Homo soveticus soveticus?

Yes, in principle the museum was there for visitors, but there were not many of them, clearly even fewer than in Soviet times when there was much less entertainment for young and old, fewer TV serials about wildlife and fewer trips to France, Italy and Greece. But still, every spring, busloads of kids from provincial schools arrived in his town: their parents had no money to pay for excursions to Scandinavia or Western Europe, and their teachers considered it their duty to take them to all museums in the town, although the boys and girls, especially the teenagers, demonstrated very clearly their total lack of interest for everything smelling of history and dust. At best they exchanged obscene comments on their teachers and the stuffed animals (he had to concede they sometimes bore some similarity to each other, clearly belonging to a very different world than the students), before rushing out to buy more coke and chips from the nearest kiosk.

The little kids were different: they even seemed to have a feeling of awe standing before the skeleton of a mammoth and the two stuffed bisons. They stopped to look at the bears and the lynx. Once a little girl asked him "Sir, is this big cat alive?" Usually he didn't guide the excursions himself: he had an aide, often a student eager to earn a little extra money. But there were some groups of students he liked and wanted to meet personally, if possible: these were the naturalists, children with a real, sometimes passionate, interest for animals and nature. Some of them were already well-read in biology, some had done some serious research, observed birds, small rodents or insects. Once a year there was a gathering of them at the university. He really admired these youngsters who pursued their interest with such gentle determination, paying little attention to the lures of the emerging consumer society and to their own poverty: a few of them came from small townships and were really poor, their parents having lost their jobs, and living on unemployment benefits. But he felt sure these guys would go on and enter the university: they were predestined to become biologists despite all the ups and downs of economics and politics. They were born to carry rubber boots and backpacks, to sleep in tents and wade through muddy streams. Like him: he had been such a passionate naturalist himself, and had a special relationship with them. Sometimes he even could help them, giving them a little money as prizes for papers they presented to the university biologists who acted as a jury. And during the gathering they were taken to the university canteen and had free dinners there.

Every weekend, families came to the museum. Most often dads with their little children, rarely moms. Either the furry stuffed animals had some special attraction for the little boys still lurking in the grown-up men, or taking the kids to the museum was just the easiest way for them to do something with the children. Perhaps they really wanted to be with them, perhaps they had been just sent out by mom who was cleaning up the flat.

Rarely were there other visitors in the museum. Of course, retired people sometimes came, sometimes a group of elderly Finns or Swedes was brought here, sometimes some Mormons or Christian fundamentalists came to try to convert him and gave him books on Creationist biology. He observed these people like rare specimens of birds - for some reason they reminded him first of all of birds - and noticed that mostly they were just satisfied with the work they had done and not worried by its results. They had fulfilled their duty, they had tried to save him, they had gathered some merit points for themselves, and the rest was his and God's.

There were a couple of lunatics who visited him from time to time too. Fortunately they were not very troublesome. One wrote long treatises explaining that his people came from a sunken continent and had a special mission here on Earth; according to him it was proven by their peculiar anthropometric characteristics. He believed that it was absolutely necessary to forbid all mixed marriages and restore the pure race of the chosen people who had once left their homeland. Now the time was ripe, if there were enough people of this ancient race on Earth, the sunken continent would rise again and the golden age would return... The other believed he could understand the language of birds and told the Director stories he believed he had heard from crows, jackdaws and pigeons; curiously enough, mostly frivolous stories of common small town gossip.

When the girl student manning the reception desk this late afternoon came over with the visitor he saw at once that the man was a loony too. He was dressed in a sheepskin coat and had on massive boots and an old fur hat such as the peasants used to wear a generation ago. On his back he carried a cloth bag.

The girl announced a bit uneasily that the man wanted to speak with the Director; she probably felt that it should have been her duty not to let this strange man in.

- OK, - the Director said, - thank you. You can go home, I'll stay here for an hour or two. And turning to the man, he asked:

- What can I do for you? noticing at the same time that the stranger had beautiful, childishly blue eyes. He couldn't tell his age, perhaps he was was about sixty.

- The man smiled, and his face seemed for a moment even more childish.

- My greetings to you and thank you for receiving me in this honorable institution. I would appreciate it if you could answer some of my questions about certain animals that once lived on Earth.

He couldn't but feel real curiosity. A man who spoke solemnly using such old-fashioned expressions, could be an interesting specimen of Homo. And there was something pleasant in him, he was probably not aggressive, hopefully not too talkative either.

- Thanks for the compliments, I am ready to answer your questions, if I only can.

- Thank you. I was told by some lads and lasses in the vicinity that there are some stuffed ancient animals in your institution. Are there some among them that are now extinct, exterminated by man?

- Sure, - he answered. - One or two species of hummingbirds, one species of toad, and some marsupials which have not been spotted for many years. And the famous migratory pigeon from America you may know about.

- Yes, of course, - nodded the visitor. - I remember it quite well. One moment please, I must search for them in my book.

He picked up the bag, untied its laces and took out an old thick book.

- Can you please tell me the names of these creatures, preferably in Latin?

The Director said he certainly could, but that he must check them up in his books. Couldn't the visitor sit down, he may have come a long way.

- Yes, quite a long way according to your criteria, - was the answer. The visitor sat on a chair and began browse through his big book. Catching a glimpse of it, the Director noticed that it was handwritten, possibly not in Latin characters, but he couldn't be sure of that. Maybe the old man had invented a script of his own: he had heard of mentally ill people who did precisely this.

He found the Latin names of the extinct species, told them to the visitor and asked him if he would like to see them in the glass cabinets. The man said yes, and they went into the museum proper. As they stopped in front of the cabinet of hummingbirds, he showed the visitor a bird that was extinct according to the latest information he had. The visitor nodded. Suddenly a veil of melancholy had fallen on the merry childishness of his clear-blue eyes.

As they walked on towards the showcase holding the migratory pigeon the visitor said, as if to himself:

- Yes,man,man, I should have listened to my angels, they warned me, they warned me, but it was too late, I had already done it...

The he turned to the Director and asked:

- What do you think, was it a mistake that I created you, Homo sapiens?

So that was it! The visitor considered himself to be God himself. It was certainly not a common thing even among the psychiatric patients. In asylums you could easily find prophets, kings, dictators, Napoleons and Gengis Khans, but he had never heard of anybody pretending to be God himself. The poor man was probably worrying about ecological problems and thought himself, as the creator of mankind, responsible for all the mess the genus Homo had made on Earth. He couldn't but feel some sympathy for him: it would certainly not be easy to be God, real or imaginary.

- You know, we biologists often think man is a kind of a failure,a mighty neural computer serving the interests of a little capricious child. But as men ourselves, we can't be too self-critical, we can't deny our own right to exist, despite the fact that we are now denying this right to so many other living beings.

They stopped in front of the pigeon, an old, already damaged bird fastened to a branch and looking at the visitors with its dark-brown glass eyes. The visitor nodded once more and said:

- Yes, it's really a problem both for me and for you. But what is your opinion: would it be reasonable to resuscitate these extinct animals, at least some of them? Could they survive in the world, if man is still there, or is it hopeless?

The Director said he didn't have any definite opinion on this subject. It had never been even an academic problem for biologists, although it could become one, thanks to the advances in genetic engineering. Some researchers had already discussed the possibility of re-creating the mammoth. But yes, for some species the situation was really hopeless, there was no place left for them, as Homo was colonizing the last remaining patches of wilderness.

- I am really worrying about this issue: I feel I should do something. But for me too it would be woeful to destroy a species it took me such an effort to create and on whom I have placed so many hopes. And there are still some really righteous people on Earth, how could I send them back to Nothing? Maybe there is still a compromise possible. What do you think?

The old lunatic seemed so genuine in his worries that the Director couldn't but feel some sympathy for him. Unfortunately he could do very little to help him, but maybe a reassuring, optimistic answer would somehow calm him down. He tried to summarize his ideas in a more positive tone:

- I think it could be possible. The demographic explosion (he wondered whether the visitor knew this expression) shows signs of slowing down; if the number of people on Earth remained stable or began to diminish, there would still be hope for both nature and mankind...

He caught himself formulating a serious plea for the genus Homo to a madman who believed he was God himself. It was ridiculous, he had to cut it short and send the man away. He had more serious things to do.

- After all, you know, our species is a relatively young one, maybe we are still able to learn something. But I must excuse myself, I have some work to do, and the museum is officially closed already. Do you wish to see something more?

- No, thank you very much, it was really generous of you ... yes, you are right, you are a young species, yes, you should perchance have some more time to learn. But still, it will be very hard for you to respond, when I will come and ask what you have done with all the beings I demanded you rule and take care of ... Oh, still one little question, if you permit...

- You are welcome.

- It's about this pigeon. Do you think it would have a chance to survive, to have a - what was the word, o yes, habitat - if it were to reappear on Earth?

- The pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius. Yes, I think there could be enough habitat for the pigeon, it could manage quite well.

- Thank you very much indeed. Now it's time for me to depart. It was really pleasurable to meet you. I am sure we will meet in the future world. Farewell.

The old man put the book back into his bag and bowed; he escorted him to the door, and watched as he went down the large stairs leading to the hall and from there to the front door. There, the visitor turned around and waved the Director goodbye. The Director went back to the museum. The student had left, he had to turn the lights off himself. Going to the switches he heard a strange noise from the far end of the room. He went over. The noise came from the showcase of the migratory pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius. The bird was fluttering around, hitting the glass panes in its attempt to get out.

Written in English, edited by Fiona Sampson

lundi 17 février 2014

Europe as Machine

Machine as the European Ideal

The architect Le Corbusier wrote that a house is a machine of living. He also wanted to do away with spontaneously arisen cities and highways replacing them with man-made modern, functional and «geometrical» ones. More less at the same time the Estonian linguist Johannes Aavik wrote that language is a machine of communication, and must be re-engineered and remodelled according to the needs of modern communication. The language of the past that evolved at slow pace in village communities was not fit for our times. Now we know better than our ancestors how a language should look like.

Both these men were children of their times. The beginning of the twentieth century gave birth to Italian and Russian futurism with similar ideas, similar cult of technology, of machines and similar rejection of the past they considered to have been irrational and dark. But they were also children of their culture, of the Western civilization. Formal rules that can be written down and scrupulously observed are an integral part of this civilization. The tendency of formalisation is present in this culture from its beginnings. We can see its emergence already in Pythagorean vision of the cosmos (and music) as a mathematical construct, in the formalisation of logic by Aristotle, in the development of astrology, and later, of the formalistic catholic theology, but also of musical theory, of harmony and point counter point. We can also mention the ideas of Raimundus Lullus as well as Leibniz about the possibility to find a machine or a calculus permitting us to find out all truthful expressions, i.e. to find the hidden mathematical foundations, the real mathematical essence of everything. The West took over and integrated some Near Eastern legalistic and ideas that led to the rise of Roman law and the ideas of the rule of law. In the West, law is often considered to be an absolute, rule of law is an ideal of the West. Nowadays this rule of law and rule of rules and regulations has reached an apotheosis in the EU. The EU is designed to become a machine, a well-programmed computer, running flawlessly. This is the ideal, and in the name of this ideal both common sense and humanism are sometimes put aside.

The problem with such machinery is that they never work flawlessly, nature is most probably not a calculus, and all formulae, equations and theories describing it are necessarily limited and uncomplete. This is most probably a corollary of the famous Gödel theorem of incompleteness. In practice, the impossibility of regulating all human activity with laws and rules, the impossibility of a complete rule of law leads to increasing problems and crises as we see now in Europe. These crises cannot probably be overcome by more rules and regulations, more formal steps. They need a critical reevaluation of the hidden philosophical foundations of our policies, of our ideals.

I think that what we need is a reappraisal of our belief in formalism, a step away from legalism that has shaped our societies and our thinking for centuries, if not thousands of years. We can perhaps find some inspiration from one cradle of our civilization, from the Near East, namely from Judaism. Judaism is very legalistic, the rabbis have worked out a tremendous system of rules with their interpretations. But despite the importance of rules, there is a metarule rending nul and void nearly all the rules, stopping the halakhic machinery. It is the rule that saving a life, a living soul is more important than observing any rule. There are some exceptions, namely one is not permitted to save one's life by denying God's existence or worshipping false gods. But the fact is that there is something more important than laws and rules, and this something is human life.

There is perhaps also something to learn from the Chinese social system where the rule of law was not so important than in the West. Traditionally, here the law was mostly criminal law and the courts dealt with thieves, robbers and murderers, not for example with financial disputes between businessmen or other people. These were handled by families or professional organizations, guilds. Thus there were fewer laws and codices in traditional China than in Europe. Still, the Chinese society was relatively much more stable than the western ones, what is proven by the continuity of its culture and tradition. Confucius was a contemporary of Plato. We don't know much about Plato's family or descendants nor abpout the genealogy of other major figures of the antique. In China, the direct descendants of Confucius are still there, as well as the manor, the tomb and even the chariot of the philosopher.

You cannot build a machine from fuzzy, fluffy and fluid components. Details, wheels, levers,
switches of a machine must be made of solid metal. When we want to see things social, moral or spiritual functioning as machines, they too must have solid components. The components of our European machinery are made of words and concepts. What in practice is nearly the same as things called essences. Essence is what makes a rose a rose, a human being a human being, happiness happiness, etc. A deeply ingrained European belief is that everything has an essence, and the way to find out essences of things is to try to define them. Thus, the European machine is being constructed, and this construction is a permanent process, of well-defined words, concepts. This is true of science, of philosophy, but also of jurisprudence and morals. Laws are written with words, and to apply them we must find out the differences e.g. between manslaughter and murder, theft and robbery. This is also happening in politics: we are talking about democracy, human rights, freedom and corruption as something clearly definable. And being accustomed to such concepts we take for granted that such things, such essences as democracy, freedom, egality, rights, etc. exist as clear-cut, definable entities. They resemble measuring sticks, rules with clear centimetre or inche lines drawn on them. And we use these rules to measure and evaluate things, lifeless and living, ourselves and other people. We tend to believe that we are able to measure their rights and wrongs, to find out whether they are fit to function as components of our economical, moral or spiritual machine. The basic European religion, its first and foremost belief is the belief in words, concepts and essences. This is a belief shared by nearly all Western systems of thought, liberals and conservatives, religious fundamentalists and communists, revolutionaries and counter-revolutionaries. Thus it is perhaps important to keep in mind that this belief is not shared at least by one Chinese school way of looking at things, namely Taoism. The Taoists believe that most important thoughts cannot be put into words. Who knows, doesn't speak, who speaks, doesn't know as has said Laozi. And they have found many common points with Buddhists who deny the existence of any essences.

The Western tendency of formalization has already created a situation where legislative acts must be processed with special computer programmes, creating an ordered database of normative acts, otherwise even a person reasonably competent in law is lost. This computerized processing, comparing, editing juridical texts can be compared to processing of medical information. Computerization has here led to computerized diagnostics. Sometimes a computer can here achieve better results than a qualified doctor. Could in future juridical procedures be computerized too, e.g. will computers take over litigations and pass judgments and sentences? This possibility is, of course, a reductio ad absurdum of the logic of development in the Western societies, and probably will never become a reality. But the fact is that the formalization of nearly everything, be it evaluation of science, arts, personalities, etc, has reached an astonishing and troubling level. I think that we need a return to humanism, to human understanding, to human language that is very often non-formalistic, «non-Aristotelian». And we need an authority who can change legislation, override legal acts and court judgments. How such an authority could be established and what should guarantee that this authority cannot abuse its supreme powers? I don't know. Perhaps we can learn something from the history, be it the history of various monarchies, be it in Europe, Asia, Africa or America. I think that here too, the Chinese example could be worth studying.